Law and Legal Matters
A computer is a machine which manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Law is a system of rules usually enforced through a set of institutions. Law affects everyday life and society in a variety of ways. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading swaptions on a derivatives market. Property law defines rights and obligations related to transfer and title of personal and real property, for instance, in mortgaging or renting a home. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, such as pension funds.
Constitutional law provides a framework for creating laws, protecting people's human rights, and electing political representatives. Administrative law relates to the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. International law regulates affairs between sovereign nation-states in everything from trade to the environment to military action.
Legal systems around the world elaborate legal rights and responsibilities in different ways. Laws and legal systems reflect the society and culture out of which they arise. A basic distinction is made between civil law jurisdictions and systems using common law. Some countries base their law on religious texts, while in others traditional customary law or Socialist legal theory are strong influences. The most important institutions for law are the judiciary, the legislature, the executive, its bureaucracy, the military and police, the legal profession and civil society.