Examples of Psychotropic Medications, Drug Abuse and Alcohol – Pharmacology
|Drug Classification||Purpose||Side Effects||Contraindications
|CNS Stimulant Medication
|Promote CNS functioning.
Treat ADD or paradoxically ADHD in children over age 6 and for narcolepsy.
Treatment of senile apathy and major depression not yielding to other therapies.
|Nervousness, insomnia, irritability, seizures, or psychosis from overdose.
Tachycardia, palpitations, HTN, cardiac arrhythmias, blurred vision, headache and dizziness.
GI disturbances, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and dry mouth.
|Closed-angle glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disorders, anxiety, agitation, eating disorders, and treatment for obesity without diet and exercise modifications.|
|Antidepressant. It potentiates the action of norepinephrine and serotonin activity by blocking their reuptake.
Delayed action of elevating mood and increasing alertness after few weeks. Mild sedative effect; improved sleep.
|Dry mouth, increase appetite, weight gain, drowsiness, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention with BPH, postural hypotension.
Cardiac arrhythmias and palpitation.
|Cardiac, renal, GI and liver disorders.
Seizure disorder; older adults with high risk for falls.
|Antidepressant. Increase concentration of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine by inhibiting MAO enzyme.
Reserved for refractory or atypical depressions or those associated with panic disorders or phobias.
|HTN, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, headache, stiff neck, chest pain, tachycardia, palpitation, blurred vision and GI disturbances such as N&V.||Cerebrovascular, heart, liver and renal disorders.
Children under 16 years age.
Undergoing elective surgery requiring anesthesia.
Excessive consumption of caffeine.
Serotonin Reuptak Inhibitors
|Antidepressant – first line of medications.
Block reabsorption of the neurotransmitter serotonin, helping to restore brain’s chemical balance.
|Sexual dysfunction, insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, sweating, tremor, fatigue and headache.
Nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea.
Dose related HTN.
|Liver and renal impairments.
Suicide prone and bipolar disorders.
Diabetes, underweight and eating disorders.
Activating antidepressant; treatment of severe depression caused by fatigue, lethargy and psychomotor retardation. Reduce relapse rates in those who are quitting smoking.
Calming antidepressant; treatment of agitated depression, mixed anxiety and depression, and fibromyalgia.
|Drowsiness, dry mouth and nausea.
Dizziness and confusion.
Insomnia, restlessness, agitation and anxiety.
Priapism or impotence.
Cardiac or liver disorders.
|Treatment of acute manic episodes and maintenance of remission in bipolar disorders (inhibits relapse of dopamine and norepinephrine, but not serotonin).
Prevent future episodes.
Depakote is an anticonvulsant valporate that is used in mood stabilization.
|GI distress. Thirst and polyuria.
Cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension.
Lethargy, slurred speech, tremors and muscle weakness.
Sever toxic and can cause CNS, renal and pulmonary problems.
|Renal and cardiac disease.
History of leukemia. Fever.
Metabolic disorders; sodium depletion. Dehydration and diuretic use.
Suicidal and impulsive patients.
|Short-term treatment of anxiety disorders, neurosis for psychotherapy, some psychosomatic disorders and insomnia, and nausea and vomiting.
Muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants and preoperatively.
Reduce anxiety and promote relaxation without sedation effect when given in small dose.
|Depression, hallucinations, confusion, amnesia, bizarre behavior and agitation.
Drowsiness, headache and lethargy.
Sensitivity to sunlight, rash and itching.
Tremor, ataxia, and extrapyramidal reactions.
Liver or kidney dysfunction.
Preexisting CNS depression.
Uncontrolled sever pain.
Some contain alcohol.
|Relieve symptoms of psychoses and sever neuroses, including delusions, agitation, hallucinations, and combativeness.
Relieving nausea and vomiting.
Potentiation of analgesics.
Blocks dopamine receptors (anticholinergic action to some extent).
|Postural hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia and vertigo.
Insomnia, headache, depression, agitation, confusion, drowsiness, restlessness, weakness, and seizure.
Blurred vision, dry mouth, fever, jaundice, rash, and photosensitivity.
Constipation, urinary retentions, and anorexia.
Parkinsonian symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, dystonic reactions (spasms of neck, head, or tongue) and akathisia (motor restlessness).
Cerebral vascular disease.
CNS depression, circulatory collapse could occur.
Bone marrow depression.
Liver or cardiovascular disorders.